‘One of the biggest challenges faced by people who have chronic illnesses is that of being believed. Of being listened to by professionals, and finding people who understand that conditions like fi bromyalgia, M.E. [myalgic encephalomyelitis] and so on are real, physical illnesses.’ This heartfelt cry stems from Emsy’s Internet blog on medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS).1 If you browse the Internet, you will soon discover that there are many people like Emsy: people who (chronically) suffer from bodily pain or fatigue, while their suffering is not recognized as a ‘real, physical illness.’ Since MUPS can imply any kind of physical distress, it rather involves a general ‘working diagnosis’ than a specific diagnosis (Olde Hartman et al. 2013). Examples of MUPS include chronic fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, headache, stomachache, nausea, palpitations, and dizziness.